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Mac OS X Carbon and Cocoa Development

Cocoa 6. ColorSync 4. CoreAudio 4. CoreBluetooth 1. CoreData - CoreDisplay CoreFoundation 6. CoreGraphics 2. CoreImage CoreMedia 1. CoreMediaIO CarbonCore DictionaryServices 1. FSEvents Metadata SearchKit 1. SharedFileList CoreText CoreVideo 1. CoreWLAN Framework DiscRecording 9. DiskArbitration 2. ForceFeedback 1.

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Foundation 6. GSS 4. Bluetooth 6. IOKit 2. IOSurface ImageCaptureCore 1.

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JavaScriptCore - Kerberos 3. LDAPFramework 2. MediaAccessibility 1.


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MediaToolbox 1. Metal NetFS 6. OpenAL 1. CFOpenDirectory OpenDirectory QTKit 7. PDFKit 1.

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QuartzComposer 5. QuickLookUIFramework 5. QuartzCore 1. This version allowed developers to port their code to Carbon without losing the ability for those programs to run on existing Mac OS machines. Porting to Carbon became known as "Carbonization". Carbon was very widely used in early versions of Mac OS X by almost all major software houses, even by Apple. The Finder , for instance, remained a Carbon application for many years, only being ported to Cocoa with the release of Mac OS Apple does not provide compatibility between the Macintosh graphical user interface and the C programming language in the bit environment, instead requiring the use of the Objective-C dialect with the Cocoa API.

Despite the purported advantages of Cocoa, the need to rewrite large amounts of legacy code slowed the transition of Carbon-based applications, famously with Adobe Photoshop , [6] which was eventually updated to Cocoa in April This also extended to Apple's own flagship software packages, as iTunes [7] and Final Cut Pro as well as the features in the QuickTime engine that powers it [8] remained written in Carbon for many years.

In , with the release of OS X Carbon descends from the Toolbox , and as such, is composed of "Managers". Each Manager is a functionally related API, defining sets of data structures and functions to manipulate them. Managers are often interdependent or layered. Carbon consists of a broad set of functions for managing files, memory, data, the user interface, and other system services. It is implemented as any other API: in macOS, it is spread over several frameworks each a structure built around a shared library , principally Carbon.

Carbon (API)

As an umbrella term encompassing all C-language API procedures accessing Mac-specific functionality, Carbon is not designed as a discrete system. Rather, it opens nearly all the functionality of macOS to developers who do not know the Objective-C language required for the broadly equivalent Cocoa API. Newer parts of Carbon tend to be much more object-oriented in their conception, most of them based on Core Foundation.

The Mac Toolbox's Event Manager originally used a polling model for application design. If there is an event in the queue, the Event Manager passes it back to the application, where it is handled, otherwise it returns immediately. This behavior is called " busy-waiting ", running the event loop unnecessarily.

Busy-waiting reduces the amount of CPU time available for other applications and decreases battery power on laptops. The classic Event Manager dates from the original Mac OS in , when whatever application was running was guaranteed to be the only application running, and where power management was not a concern. With the advent of MultiFinder and the ability to run more than one application simultaneously came a new Event Manager call, WaitNextEvent , which allows an application to specify a sleep interval.

One easy trick for legacy code to adopt a more efficient model without major changes to its source code is simply to set the sleep parameter passed to WaitNextEvent to a very large value—on macOS, this puts the thread to sleep whenever there is nothing to do, and only returns an event when there is one to process. In this way, the polling model is quickly inverted to become equivalent to the callback model, with the application performing its own event dispatching in the original manner. There are loopholes, though. For one, the legacy toolbox call ModalDialog , for example, calls the older GetNextEvent function internally, resulting in polling in a tight loop without blocking.

Carbon introduces a replacement system, called the Carbon Event Manager. The original Event Manager still exists for compatibility with legacy applications. Carbon Event Manager provides the event loop for the developer based on Core Foundation's CFRunLoop in the current implementation ; the developer sets up event handlers and enters the event loop in the main function, and waits for Carbon Event Manager to dispatch events to the application. In the classic Mac OS, there was no operating system support for application level timers the lower level Time Manager was available, but it executed timer callbacks at interrupt time, during which calls could not be safely made to most Toolbox routines.

Timers were usually left to application developers to implement, and this was usually done by counting elapsed time during the idle event - that is, an event that was returned by WaitNextEvent when any other event wasn't available. In order for such timers to have reasonable resolution, developers could not afford WaitNextEvent to delay too long, and so low "sleep" parameters were usually set.

This results in highly inefficient scheduling behavior, since the thread will not sleep for very long, instead repeatedly waking to return these idle events. Also, the site you reference is not helpful at all My dad restored data from my disk in a few days. What's the big deal? Well - houses burn down, they flood, computers get stolen.

How to clone a macOS Disk

Until you've experienced one of those, you'll probably never see the point. Sam - I think you must be referring to Arjan's link to a link. But it's actually an interesting comparison of a lot of services.

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I find rsync the most versatile. It even works in all platforms. This setup has worked well for me for over a year now. Paul Lefebvre. Why every 4 hours? Wouldn't a 4 hourly backup be 1 to 4 times larger than an hourly backup, so what's to win? The backup sucks up quite a bit of the CPU, so I prefer to not run it every hour.


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